Amino alcohols (alkanolamines, hydramines) are aliphatic organic compounds containing both an amine functional group (–NH2) and an alcohol functional group (–ОН).
Lower amino alcohols are high-boiling oleaginous fluids with the properties characteristic of bases. Alpha-amino alcohols, with the amine and alcohol functional groups belonging to two neighbouring carbon atoms, are derived from the reaction of ammonia and amines with epoxides, while the synthesis of more complex amino alcohols requires the use of the standard methods of amination and hydroxylation.
Amino alcohols, especially ethanolamines, find numerous uses in the production of detergents, emulsifiers, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; they are also applied as the absorbers of acid gases (for instance, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen cyanide) in the chemical industry.
Alkanolamines are manufactured by three CIS companies (two of which share the same production site) with the total capacity of 45,000 tpy as of October 2008.
The article gives an in-depth analysis of processes, properties, and application fields for these products.